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William Shakespeare

20. 11. 2009

Život [upraviť]

William Shakespeare sa narodil ako tretí z ôsmich detí. Jeho otec bol v Stratforde považovaný za významného muža. Shakespeare pravdepodobne navštevoval Gymnázium Eduarda VI. v Stratforde. Ako osemnásťročný sa oženil s Anne Hathwayovou. Anne bola dcérou farmára zo Shothery a svadba sa konala neobvykle rýchlo. Dôvodom bolo zrejme Annine tehotenstvo. V roku 1583 sa im totiž narodila dcéra Susanna (pokrstená 27. mája) a v roku 1585 prišli na svet dvojčatá Hamnet a Judith. Shakespearov jediný syn, ktorého meno pripomína aj jedna z jeho najslávnejších hier, Hamlet, však zomrel v mladom veku.

Nie je známe, kedy a prečo sa Shakespeare rozhodol odísť zo Stratfordu do Londýna, ani čo bolo impulzom k jeho londýnskej kariére herca a dramatika. Shakespeare sa stal členom jednej z dvoch najznámejších divadelných skupín v Londýne, a po menej úspešnej kariére herca sa stal populárnym autorom dramatických textov. Zachovalo sa 18 divadelných hier, no Shakespeare ani jednu z nich neautorizoval. Dnešné súborné vydania jeho hier obsahujú 37 až 39 dramatických textov. Okrem toho sa venoval písaniu poém a sonetov. Sonety sú čiastočne adresované tajomnej žene, tzv. čiernej dáme, a čiastočne neznámemu mužovi.

Posledné roky svojho života Shakespeare strávil v rodnom Stratforde. Zomrel vo veku 52 rokov, 23. apríla (v predpokladaný deň jeho narodenia) v roku 1616. Jeho kolegovia herci a dramatici z Londýna sedem rokov po jeho smrti (1623) publikovali vyše 900-stranové súborné vydanie jeho hier (36 hier) a neskorší vydavatelia do tzv. shakespearovského kánonu pridali ešte jednu, resp. tri ďalšie hry. Vďaka súbornému vydaniu z roku 1623 sa jeho dielo zachovalo do dnešných čias. Shakespeare je pochovaný v oltárišti kostola Holy Trinity Church v mestečku Stratford-upon-Avon. Na stene neďaleko Shakespearovho hrobu je umiestnená jeho busta.

Vraví sa, že Shakespeare si sám napísal i epitaf na svoj pomník:

"Drahý priateľu, pre Kristove rany, nevykop
nikdy piesok, ktorý skrýva tento hrob.
Kto tento hrob zachová, nech Boh ho omilostí,
a nech je preklínaný, kto pohne mojou kostrou."

Tvorba 

Množstvo Shakespearových hier sa všeobecne považuje za jedny z najlepších hier v anglickom jazyku a západnej literatúry. Písal najmä tragédie, historické hry, komédie a romance, ktoré boli preložené do takmer všetkých svetových jazykov.

Shakespearove hry sa zvyčajne rozdeľujú do troch hlavných období:

  • rané obdobie - rané komédie a historické hry (napr. "Sen noci svätojánskej" a "Henry IV", časť 1)
  • stredné obdobie - zahŕňa jeho najznámejšie tragédie Othello, "Rómeo a Júlia", "Macbeth", "Hamlet" a "Kráľ Lear"
  • neskoré obdobie - napr. "Zimná rozprávka" a "Búrka".

Bibliografia 

Projekt Gutenberg
Projekt Gutenberg obsahuje plné texty diel autora:

Komédie

Hry historické 

  • Kráľ Ján (King John)
  • Richard II. (Richard II)
  • Henrich IV., prvý diel (Henry IV, part 1)
  • Henrich IV., druhý diel (Henry IV, part 2)
  • Henrich V. (Henry V)
  • Henrich VI., prvý diel (Henry IV, part 1)
  • Henrich VI., druhý diel (Henry IV, part 2)
  • Henrich VI., tretí diel (Henry IV, part 3)
  • Richard III. (Richard III)
  • Henrich VIII. (Henry VIII)

Tragédie 

Hry 

Literatúra 

  • Muž ktorý sa volal Shakespeare, Konrad Haemmerling, Slovenský spisovateľ, Bratislava, 1961
  • Bžochová-Wild, Jana : "Hamlet: dobrodružstvo textu". ISBN 80-88897-06-8 LCA Levice 1998.
  • Bžochová-Wild, Jana: "Úvod do shakespearovského divadla." ISBN 80-88987-11-3 Divadelný ústav a Kalligram Bratislava, 1999.
  • Bžochová-Wild, Jana: "Začarovaný ostrov? Shakespearova Búrka inak." ISBN 80-7185-669-X Divadelný ústav Bratislava, 2003.
  • Dunton-Downerová, L. a Riding, A.: "Shakespeare. Základná príručka." ISBN 80-551-1291-6 Preložila Jana Bžochová-Wild. Ikar Bratislava, 2006.
William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
anglický spisovateľ a dramatik
Narodenie apríl 1564
Stratford-upon-Avon, Anglicko
Úmrtie 23. apríl 1616
Stratford-upon-Avon, Anglicko
Podpis Shakespeare-WillSignature3.png

 

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